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Help Your kids with Math PDF

266 Pages·2014·37.72 MB·English
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R e Nvis E ed copieMso sroeld Wth a nE 4D0aInTdI uOpdated worl0,00N dwi0 d e HELP YOUR KIDS WITH A UNIQUE STEP-BY-STEP VISUAL GUIDE m s a h HELP YOUR KIDS WITH t m a HELP YOUR KIDS hWITH t A UNIQUE STEP-BY-STEP VISUAL GUIDE LONDON, NEW YORK, MELBOURNE, MUNICH, AND DELHI Project Art Editor Project Editor Mark Lloyd Nathan Joyce Designers Editors Nicola Erdpresser, Riccie Janus, Nicola Deschamps, Martha Evatt, Maxine Pedliham, Silke Spingies, Lizzie Munsey, Martyn Page, Laura Palosuo, Rebecca Tennant Peter Preston, Miezan van Zyl Design Assistants US Editor Thomas Howey, Fiona Macdonald Jill Hamilton Production Editor US Consultant Luca Frassinetti Alison Tribley Production Indexer Erika Pepe Jane Parker Jacket Designer Managing Editor Duncan Turner Sarah Larter Managing Art Editor Publishing Manager Michelle Baxter Liz Wheeler Art Director Reference Publisher Phil Ormerod Jonathan Metcalf First American Edition, 2010 This Edition, 2014 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 345 Hudson Street New York, New York 10014 10 11 12 13 14 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 001–263995 – Jul/2014 Copyright © 2010, 2014 Dorling Kindersley Limited All rights reserved. Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise) without prior written permission of the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited. A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress. ISBN 978-1-4654-2166-1 DK books are available at special discounts when purchased in bulk for sales promotions, premiums, fund-raising, or educational use. For details contact: DK Publishing Special Markets, 345 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014 or [email protected] Printed and bound by South China Printing Company, China Discover more at www.dk.com CAROL VORDERMAN M.A.(Cantab), MBE is one of Britain’s best-loved TV personalities and is renowned for her excellent math skills. She has hosted numerous shows, from light entertainment with Carol Vorderman’s Better Homes and The Pride of Britain Awards, to scientific programs such as Tomorrow’s World, on the BBC, ITV, and Channel 4. Whether co-hosting Channel 4’s Countdown for 26 years, becoming the second-best-selling female nonfiction author of the 2000s in the UK, or advising Parliament on the future of math education in the UK, Carol has a passion for and devotion to explaining math in an exciting and easily understandable way. BARRY LEWIS (Consultant Editor, Numbers, Geometry, Trigonometry, Algebra) studied math in college and graduated with honors. He spent many years in publishing, as an author and as an editor, where he developed a passion for mathematical books that presented this often difficult subject in accessible, appealing, and visual ways. He is the author of Diversions in Modern Mathematics, which subsequently appeared in Spanish as Matemáticas modernas. Aspectos recreativos. He was invited by the British government to run the major initiative Maths Year 2000, a celebration of mathematical achievement with the aim of making the subject more popular and less feared. In 2001 Barry became the president of the UK’s Mathematical Association, and was elected as a fellow of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications, for his achievements in popularizing mathematics. He is currently the Chair of Council of the Mathematical Association and regularly publishes articles and books dealing with both research topics and ways of engaging people in this critical subject. ANDREW JEFFREY (Author, Probability) is a math consultant, well known for his passion and enthusiasm for the teaching and learning of math. A teacher for over 20 years, Andrew now spends his time training, coaching, and supporting teachers and delivering lectures for various organizations throughout Europe. He has written many books on the subject of math and is better known to many schools as the “Mathemagician.” MARCUS WEEKS (Author, Statistics) is the author of many books and has contributed to several reference books, including DK’s Science: The Definitive Visual Guide and Children’s Illustrated Encyclopedia. SEAN MCARDLE (Consultant) was head of math in two primary schools and has a Master of Philosophy degree in Educational Assessment. He has written or co-written more than 100 mathematical textbooks for children and assessment books for teachers. Contents FOREWORD by Carol Vorderman 8 INTRODUCTION by Barry Lewis 10 1 NUMBERS 2 GEOMETRY Introducing numbers 14 What is geometry? 80 Addition 16 Tools in geometry 82 Subtraction 17 Angles 84 Multiplication 18 Straight lines 86 Division 22 Symmetry 88 Prime numbers 26 Coordinates 90 Units of measurement 28 Vectors 94 Telling the time 30 Translations 98 Roman numerals 33 Rotations 100 Positive and negative numbers 34 Reflections 102 Powers and roots 36 Enlargements 104 Surds 40 Scale drawings 106 Standard form 42 Bearings 108 Decimals 44 Constructions 110 Binary numbers 46 Loci 114 Fractions 48 Triangles 116 Ratio and proportion 56 Constructing triangles 118 Percentages 60 Congruent triangles 120 Converting fractions, decimals, Area of a triangle 122 and percentages 64 Similar triangles 125 Mental math 66 Pythagorean Theorem 128 Rounding off 70 Quadrilaterals 130 Using a calculator 72 Polygons 134 Personal finance 74 Circles 138 Business finance 76 Circumference and diameter 140 Area of a circle 142 The quadratic formula 192 Angles in a circle 144 Quadratic graphs 194 Chords and cyclic quadrilaterals 146 Inequalities 198 Tangents 148 Arcs 150 5 STATISTICS Sectors 151 Solids 152 What is statistics? 202 Volumes 154 Collecting and organizing data 204 Surface area of solids 156 Bar graphs 206 Pie charts 210 3 TRIGONOMETRY Line graphs 212 Averages 214 What is trigonometry? 160 Moving averages 218 Using formulas in trigonometry 161 Measuring spread 220 Finding missing sides 162 Histograms 224 Finding missing angles 164 Scatter diagrams 226 4 ALGEBRA 6 PROBABILITY What is algebra? 168 What is probability? 230 Sequences 170 Expectation and reality 232 Working with expressions 172 Combined probabilities 234 Expanding and factorizing expressions 174 Dependent events 236 Quadratic expressions 176 Tree diagrams 238 Formulas 177 Solving equations 180 Reference section 240 Linear graphs 182 Glossary 252 Simultaneous equations 186 Index 258 Factorizing quadratic equations 190 Acknowledgments 264 Foreword Hello Welcome to the wonderful world of math. Research has shown just how important it is for parents to be able to help children with their education. Being able to work through homework together and enjoy a subject, particularly math, is a vital part of a child’s progress. However, math homework can be the cause of upset in many households. The introduction of new methods of arithmetic hasn’t helped, as many parents are now simply unable to assist. We wanted this book to guide parents through some of the methods in early arithmetic and then for them to go on to enjoy some deeper mathematics. As a parent, I know just how important it is to be aware of it when your child is struggling and equally, when they are shining. By having a greater understanding of math, we can appreciate this even more. Over nearly 30 years, and for nearly every single day, I have had the privilege of hearing people’s very personal views about math and arithmetic. Many weren’t taught math particularly well or in an interesting way. If you were one of those people, then we hope that this book can go some way to changing your situation and that math, once understood, can begin to excite you as much as it does me. CAROL VORDERMAN

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